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Here is a checklist of the basics you need to consider before getting started with beekeeping, as provided by two of our senior beekeepers. 

The principles here apply to both rural and urban beekeeping. More detail can be found in our Best-Practice Guideline for Urban Beekeepers document.

Once you are confident that you can meet your legal obligations as well as safety and site suitability requirements, the best thing you can do is a training course. This will step you through hive types, equipment and, most importantly, hive management basics, including biosecurity. Check the WAAS Training page for upcoming training opportunities. You will need to be a financial WAAS member to take part in our training.

Legal obligations

Bees are considered to be livestock and as such there are a number of legal obligations around beekeeping, even for hobby beekeepers. Please make sure you are familiar with these obligations, and are able to meet them, before committing to owning bees. There are significant penalties for not meeting these requirements.

The primary requirement as a new beekeeper is that you register your hives with the Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development (DPIRD) and obtain a registered hive brand which you then apply to all your hive boxes.

For more detail, go to our Legal Obligations webpage.

Safety considerations

Do you, your family or your neighbours have a history of serious allergy to bee stings?

Bee stings are inevitable and they hurt. Most people have some form of allergic reaction from minor local swelling to a full scale, life threatening anaphylaxis. There are about 10 deaths per annum in Australia from these stings and many hundreds of people end up in Emergency Departments. All beekeepers should have an epipen available in case you or your family suffer a serious reaction. These reactions can be random, unexpected and very rapid.

Do you have back problems?

A 10 frame Full Depth box typically weighs 37kg. This can be reduced to 30kg if you use an 8 frame Full Depth box or a 10 frame WSP box. An 8 frame WSP box, Manley box, Ideal box or Half Depth box are all lighter still. A Flow Hive could reduce the need for lifting full boxes and a horizontal hive or top-bar hive would eliminate lifting boxes altogether. Choose the right equipment for your strength levels, not just now but in ten years time.

Are you prepared to purchase and wear good quality protective clothing?

Bees release a strong odour when they sting that attracts other defenders to that site, hence one sting on the ankle begets a dozen more within minutes. Good quality protective clothing that protects the whole body including ankles and feet is essential. Strong footwear is also advisable, especially in rural areas where snakes may be attracted to hives.

Do you have a Bee Buddy?

Ideally hives should be worked by two people. This ensures help is available if you have a bad reaction to a sting, and to help share heavy weights when lifting hives. WAAS runs Bee Buddy Groups in a number of areas around Perth and the regions, and has Chapters in Margaret River and Bunbury where you can team up with someone from your area.

Suitability of your site

Does your local Council allow beekeeping?

Most local governments have some form of local law relating to the keeping of bees. Some were enacted many years ago and some are more recent. It is important that you check with your local government to determine their requirements – do you need to register with your Council? Are there restrictions on the number of hives or location of hives? Do they charge a fee? If you intend to sell your honey do you need to apply through your local government for approval to harvest and prepare the honey for sale? Check this out early, before you make any investment in equipment.

Can you comply with the State Legislation for Beekeeping?

The State has enacted legislation covering aspects of beekeeping that you will need to comply with, including the requirement to register your hives with the Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, how bees should be kept (approved hive types), provision of water, record keeping, storage of hiveware and biosecurity reporting requirements. More information can be found here

To register as a beekeeper the steps are:

  • choose a unique hive brand. You can see which brands are available here. They are normally two letters (eg your initials) followed by a number. If you do not want to choose one, you will be allocated one.
  • Once you have a hive brand chosen (and made sure it is available) you need to register with DPIRD. There is an inital registration fee and a small annual fee dependent on the number of hives you own.
  • once registered, ensure that all your supers (hive boxes) are marked with your brand.
Do you have neighbours close by?

Even if your Council is OK with you keeping bees, check with your neighbours if they are close by. You don’t want to be sued by an angry neighbour whose child or dog is stung by one of “your” bees! Most inner city Councils require you to get permission from your neighbours.

Is there a reliable source of water?

Bees need a permanent supply of water – preferably NOT your swimming pool or your neighbours. You can help provide this with a pond, bowls of water etc, preferrably within 10m of your hive. Just make sure the water supply has safe landing places for the bees – rocks, plants etc – so they don’t drown trying to get a drink.

Do you have good sources of food for bees?

Bees need nectar AND pollen as well as water. Most urban gardens provide plenty of varied nutrition, but if you live in a more monocultural environment, like a forest or farming area, you may need to supplement your bees food supplies at certain times of the year.

Do you have the right location?

Beehives should face away from the prevailing wind and weather. Ideally they should be in a sheltered location that gets morning sun. The flight path of your bees shouldn’t cross living areas, or areas of heavy use such as pathways. Consider dangers such as winter flooding, falling branches or areas that require seasonal burning. Once you choose your spot, it can be quite tricky to move a hive so choose carefully.

Are you available to check your bees throughout the honey season?

If you travel frequently or have other commitments that make it difficult to inspect your bees every two to three weeks in the honey season (September to May) you may need to train up your partner, or get a bee buddy to help you maintain your colony.

Choosing a hive type

    There are many different types of hive on the market but the most common are:

    • Full depth Langstroth - these can be eight frames wide or ten frames wide. Ten frames get very heavy so not best suited for those with bad backs.
    • WSP – about 3/4s the depth of a Langstroth hive. Also in 8 or 10 frame sizes. Smaller and lighter than a Langstroth.
    • Flow Hive – hugely popular, it is based on a Langstroth but has a patented frame design that allows for easy, bee friendly harvesting of honey. The Flow Hive isn’t a “plug and play” design – you still need to manage the hive regularly. Learn more here.
    • Horizontal hives – perfect for those with back problems but not widely available in shops – you may have to make your own
    • Top bar and Warre hives - again, not generally available - you may have to make your own.
    • Insulated, non-wooden hives, such as the apimaye or paradise hives provide extra insulation and other benefits. Check with local suppliers about these options.  

      Things to consider when choosing your hive include:

      • The size and potential weight of a laden box is important.
      • You cannot interchange 8 or 10 frame boxes as they don't fit together but you can have a mix of full frame and WSP eg brood all being full frame and supers being WSP
      •  Consider your likely lifting ability in 10 or 15 years time as beekeeping is a life long activity. Many apiarists rue the day they committed to deep 10 frame hives as they age, stiffen and weaken!

      Essential Equipment

      In addition to your hive (bottom board, supers, frames, lid) you will also need:

      • protective clothing
      • a queen excluder
      • a hive tool and smoker
      • a bee brush
      • harvesting equipment (this can be also be hired from beekeeping suppliers and some Chapters)

        Obtaining Bees

        This can be the hardest part of all and can require patience and perseverance!

        • Commercial "nuc's" (nucleus hives - a queen and enough workers to get started) from a supplier can cost over $200 and a involve a very long wait. Possibly 6-9 months. Order early!
        • obtaining a nuc from a friendly beekeeper sounds easy but usually beekeepers cherish their splits and homegrown nuc's and are often reluctant to give them away or sell them.
        • Swarms are possibly the most common way for new beekeepers to start their colony. Getting hold of a swarm requires a lucky ear to hear of it, immediate action in locating it and also prompt action in procuring it. Letting friends and neighbours know you are on the look out for a swarm is a good start. A good way to circumvent this is to make contact with one of the WAAS swarm catchers who can let you know when they have a swarm to sell.

        A note of caution: many swarms are secondary from feral colonies and are too small to survive.  Remember you will usually know nothing of the provenance of the queen. In the usual confusing way of the world there are mixed thoughts about stray swarms and disease. A swarm over 3 litres in size has usually come from a good and healthy home. The smaller ones may have been shed as a result of disease in the colony or a poor quality queen . It may be wise to replace the queen as soon as one can be accessed.

        • Replacing a Queen - commercial beekeeping suppliers sell raised Queens in season. The going rate is around $65 but the waiting lists can be long so order early. 

        Branding your hives

        Within 7 days of obtaining your bees you need to ensure that you register with DPIRD and obtain your unique hive brand.

        It is often easier to obtain your brand first so that you can identify each super and preserve the wood work (paint, stain or wax) prior to bees being installed.

        Your hive brand must be stamped, carved or scored on to all your hive boxes so that it is distinctly impressed below the level of the surface and can’t be easily painted over or rubbed out. If you have bought a hive from another beekeeper, you need to cross out the existing brand and replace it with your own so that both brands can still be identified. This helps ensure that DPIRD inspectors can always identify the current owner of a hive, if necessary.

        The date on which the super was first used should be written on each super with indelible ink.

        For more detail on how to apply your hive brand, go to our Legal Obligations webpage.

        Peter Wallace and Dirk Hos


          Have any questions? Need more information? Have something to send us? Please visit our Contacts page. We are volunteer organisation so it is best to contact us by email. We will reply as soon as we can.

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